What Causes Urinary Tract Infections
UTIs usually happen because bacteria enter the urethra, then make their way up into the bladder and cause an infection. Girls get UTIs much more often than guys, most likely due to differences in the shape and length of the urethra. Girls have shorter urethras than guys, and the opening lies closer to the anus and the vagina, where bacteria are likely to be.
Bacteria can get into the urethra several ways. During sex, for example, bacteria in the vaginal area may be pushed into the urethra and eventually end up in the bladder, where pee provides a good environment for the bacteria to grow. This is why females who are sexually active often get UTIs.
Bacteria may also get into a girl’s bladder if she wipes from back to front after a bowel movement , which can contaminate the urethral opening. The use of spermicides and diaphragms as contraceptives also may increase the risk of UTIs.
Sexually transmitted diseases may cause UTI-like symptoms, such as pain with peeing. This is due to the inflammation and irritation of the urethra or vagina that’s sometimes associated with chlamydia and other STDs. If untreated, STDs can lead to serious long-term problems, including pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. Unlike UTIs, STDs are contagious.
What Are The Causes Of Bladder Infections In Men
A bladder infection is also called a UTI or urinary tract infection. This infection occurs due to the retention of urine in the urethral tract which causes irritation and the formation of a narrow track. This blockage leads to an infection.
The cause of Bladder infection is the obstruction of the urinary tract, which can be caused due to various reasons like enlarged prostate gland, injury, or a stone in the kidney.
Some other causes of bladder infections include:
- Frequent sexual intercourse with same or new partners.
- Not urinating immediately after sexual intercourse.
- Chronic diabetes.
- Changes in the urinary system.
- Diagnosed with bladder or kidney infection within the past year.
The problems associated with bladder infection are irritation in the urethra, which leads to painful urination, frequent urge to urinate, nausea, and vomiting.
How Do Utis Affect Pregnancy
Changes in hormone levels during pregnancy raise your risk for UTIs. UTIs during pregnancy are more likely to spread to the kidneys.
If you’re pregnant and have symptoms of a UTI, see your doctor or nurse right away. Your doctor will give you an antibiotic that is safe to take during pregnancy.
If left untreated, UTIs could lead to kidney infections and problems during pregnancy, including:
- Premature birth
- Low birth weight
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Are Some Women More At Risk For Utis
- Are sexually active. Sexual activity can move germs that cause UTIs from other areas, such as the vagina, to the urethra.
- Use a diaphragm for birth control or use spermicides with a diaphragm or with condoms. Spermicides can kill good bacteria that protect you from UTIs.
- Are pregnant. Pregnancy hormones can change the bacteria in the urinary tract, making UTIs more likely. Also, many pregnant women have trouble completely emptying the bladder, because the uterus with the developing baby sits on top of the bladder during pregnancy. Leftover urine with bacteria in it can cause a UTI.
- Have gone through menopause. After menopause, loss of the hormone estrogen causes vaginal tissue to become thin and dry. This can make it easier for harmful bacteria to grow and cause a UTI.
- Have diabetes, which can lower your immune system and cause nerve damage that makes it hard to completely empty your bladder
- Have any condition, like a kidney stone, that may block the flow of urine between your kidneys and bladder
- Have or recently had a catheter in place. A catheter is a thin tube put through the urethra into the bladder. Catheters drain urine when you cannot pass urine on your own, such as during surgery.
Faq Frequently Asked Questions
Author: Jonathan Meddings BMedLabSc First answered: 17 Nov 2014Last reviewed: 18 May 2018Rating: 4.8 out of 5Votes: 288 Category: Bladder cancer
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Always ask your doctor or healthcare provider any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. In case of emergency, call your doctor or dial 911 , or dial 112 , or dial 000 immediately.
What Is The Urinary Tract
The urinary tract makes and stores urine, one of the body’s liquid waste products. The urinary tract includes the following parts:
- Kidneys: These small organs are located on back of your body, just above the hips. They are the filters of your body removing waste and water from your blood. This waste becomes urine.
- Ureters: The ureters are thin tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to your bladder.
- Bladder: A sac-like container, the bladder stores your urine before it leaves the body.
- Urethra: This tube carries the urine from your bladder to the outside of the body.
Different Types Of Antibiotics For A Bladder Infection
By | Submitted On November 01, 2010
A Bladder infection is better known as a Urinary Tract Infection or Cystitis. All of these names above are used interchangeably when talking about a urinary infection. There are several common organisms that cause a urinary tract infection. Antibiotic guide therapy is based on what the invading organism or pathogen might be and symptoms. If the symptoms are more severe further testing and a different antibiotic may be indicated. Cost effectiveness is also taken into consideration when choosing antibiotics for treatment.
There are several pathogens that may be the cause of a bladder infection with E. coli leading the list. E. coli is a strong gram negative pathogen and is more susceptible to those narrow spectrum antibiotics that cover negative organisms. Hallmark symptoms of a UTI include pain with urination, increased urinary frequency, cloudy urine, suprapubic pain and possibly pain at the lower back.
Antibiotic guide therapy is based on the presenting symptoms:
If there are only minimal symptoms of infection then a Sulfa or Second Generation Quinolone antibiotic is warranted to treat the infection.
Children have the antibiotic options of Sulfas, Penicillins or Cephalosporins to treat bladder infections. Quinolones and Tetracyclines are contraindicated in childhood for the treatment of urinary tract infections.
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When To See A Doctor
Although the body may sometimes fight off a UTI on its own, waiting for this to happen carries risks. UTIs can quickly spread, causing serious kidney infections.
A person should see a doctor for any symptoms of a UTI, particularly if they are pregnant or have an underlying health condition that affects their immune system.
A person with should go to the emergency room for immediate medical care. The symptoms of a kidney infection include:
Who Gets What Bacteria
When examining UTI bacteria types, we need to keep in mind that different patients are unequally susceptible to different bacteria types. Also, depending on how you acquired your UTI will determine which bacteria are most likely to be at fault. Moreover, in certain settings, the urinary tract can be infected by multiple bugs at the same time referred to as polymicrobial infection in the medical world. Moreover, some bacteria might colonize a bladder without even causing a UTI.
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Some Facts About Pyelonephritis
- Acute pyelonephritis is a potentially life-threatening infection. In chronic pyelonephritis the kidney is damaged due to repeated or persistent infections and can even lead to kidney failure.
- Pregnant women with bacteria in their urine are at risk of developing pyelonephritis particularly in the second and third trimesters.
- The rise in the prevalence of drug-resistant bacteria has complicated the treatment of some cases of pyelonephritis.
How To Tell If You Have A Bladder Infection Vs Uti
Is there any feeling more horrible than when you start to feel something going wrong “down there?” You’ve got to pee every two minutes, to the point where you dare not stray more than a few steps from a bathroom but the only thing worse than the constant need to go is the fact that when you do, it hurts! It’s an all too familiar feeling for many women, but even men get bladder infections, too .
Your first thought, once you feel an infection coming on, is how to stop the pain and discomfort. Do you drink a quart of water, knock back a few glasses of cranberry juice, or see what over-the-counter treatments your local drugstore has to offer? Alternatively, should you make an appointment with your doctor? If you choose this last option, though, you may be wondering, “just what, exactly, should I tell them is wrong? Do I have a urinary tract infection , or could it be a bladder infection instead?”
Well, as Healthline points out, it’s either one thing, or it’s both. Bladder infections are actually a type of urinary tract infection, but they aren’t the only kind.
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Finding The Cause Of Cystitis
It is important for doctors to find the cause of cystitis in several different groups. The cause should be found in
Analgesics as needed
Cystitis is usually treated with antibiotics. Before prescribing antibiotics, the doctor determines whether the person has a condition that would make cystitis more severe, such as diabetes or a weakened immune system , or more difficult to eliminate, such as a structural abnormality. Such conditions may require more potent antibiotics taken for a longer period of time, particularly because the infection is likely to return as soon as the person stops taking antibiotics. People with such conditions may also have infections caused by fungi or unusual bacteria and may thus require something other than the most commonly used antibiotics.
For women, taking an antibiotic by mouth for 3 days is usually effective if the infection has not led to any complications, although some doctors prefer to give a single dose. For more stubborn infections, an antibiotic is usually taken for 7 to 10 days. For men, cystitis usually is caused by prostatitis Prostatitis Prostatitis is pain and swelling, inflammation, or both of the prostate gland. The cause is sometimes a bacterial infection. Pain can occur in the area between the scrotum and anus or in the… read more , and antibiotic treatment is usually required for weeks.
How Common Are Urinary Tract Infections
Urinary tract infections are very common, occurring in 1 out of 5 women sometime in their lifetime. Though UTIs are common in women, they can also happen to men, older adults and children. One to 2% of children develop urinary tract infections. Each year, 8 million to 10 million visits to doctors are for urinary tract infections.
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Some Facts About Ureteritis
- Ureteritis is unlikely to occur on its own. Overall it is rare and mainly arises from the spread of a kidney infection .
- Flank pain is one of the common symptoms of ureteritis and pyelonephritis .
- Children with a UTI are more likely to have the ureteral valve malfunction thereby allowing for the backward flow of urine from the bladder into the kidney.
What Is A Bladder Infection
Cystitis is inflammation of the bladder. Most cystitis is from bacterial infections involving the bladder and less commonly may be due to other infectious diseases, including yeast infections, viral infections, or the result of other causes such as chemical irritants of the bladder, or for unknown reasons . Bladder infection is a type of urinary tract infection . Other forms of urinary tract infection include pyelonephritis , urethritis , and prostatitis . This review will specifically address infectious cystitis.
The urine in the bladder is normally free of bacteria . However, bacteria may be present in the bladder but not cause inflammation or symptoms of an infection.
- This is asymptomatic bacteriuria, not cystitis.
- Asymptomatic bacteriuria is bacteria in the urine that does not cause symptoms.
- It is important to differentiate asymptomatic bacteriuria from cystitis, to prevent overuse of antibiotics.
- Most people with asymptomatic bacteriuria do not require antibiotics.
- In fact, the guidelines for the Infectious Disease Society of America recommend only treating asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women or immediately before urologic procedures.
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Penis Pain Or Swelling
Generally, swelling or pain is not normal for the male genitals. Most men are already sensitive in this area, so anything abnormal should be noticeable, right away. There can be numerous , including infections, autoimmune disorders, genital injuries, or allergic reactions. The area where the swelling or pain originates from often helps to determine what is causing the problem.
In cases of painful urination or dysuria, the root cause is usually a sexually transmitted disease or urinary tract infections. These problems are very treatable when given the proper care early on.
What Are The Symptoms Of Utis In Men
The UTI can occur in both men and women but men are more prone to this infection. The infections may affect any age group but those who are most vulnerable to bladder infection are children under 5 years of age, pregnant women, and elderly senior people.
Urinary tract infection is a relatively common problem and millions of people are affected by this every year. The urinary tract consists of kidneys and bladder, with both the kidneys and bladder holding urine.
The most common symptom of UTI is an intense urge to urinate even when the bladder is not full.
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What Causes Pain In The Penis
Pain in the penis is occurs from a number of reasons. Some men complain of pain during an erection, sexual intercourse or when urinating. You may also experience pain with a flaccid penis following an infection or injury. Pain may occur at the base of your penis, on the shaft, the head, or the foreskin. Pain in the penis can happen in a man of any age following an infection. Here are some of the most common causes of pain in the penis:
Urinary Tract Infection Caused By Group B Streptococcus
Group B Streptococcus is a Gram-positive chain-forming bacterium that commonly dwells in the lower gut and female reproductive tract without causing any symptoms. Statistics show that the bug causes only about 12% of all UTIs.
Advanced age and pregnancy are the main risk factors for contracting a UTI caused by this organism. In fact, GBS UTIs can be fatal in the elderly population. Those with poor immunitysuch as in those suffering from cancer and diabetes, and pre-existing abnormalities of the urinary tract such as chronic kidney disease or stones in the kidneysare subject to additional risk factors for contracting a GBS UTI.
When it comes to pregnancy, although GBS often doesnt cause any symptoms in women, its presence in urine and/or the vagina can pose serious threats for both the mother and the child. Most importantly, if there is a transfer of GBS from the mother to the baby during labor and delivery, the infection could spread to the child s bloodstream, which can be life-threatening. Given the high risk of GBS complications in the baby, the Centers for Disease Control recommend universal screening of all females at 35-37 weeks of pregnancy. If a woman tests positive for GBS, preventive IV antibiotics are recommended during labor and delivery.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Bladder Infections In Men
Bladder infections are a common problem in men that is highly misunderstood. There are many varieties of bladder infections, and each one has a different cause and effect. The most common variety is due to acute bacterial infection which occurs when there is an imbalance of bacteria in the urinary tract. Once the balance of healthy bacteria is disturbed, it allows for the multiplication of the infection-causing bacteria. Below are some of the common symptoms of bladder infections:
- Frequent urination.
- Cloudy urine with a strong odor.
- Blood in the urine .
- Trouble urinating, especially if you have a problem with your prostate.
Other Symptoms Of Utis
If the person has a sudden and unexplained change in their behaviour, such as increased confusion, agitation, or withdrawal, this may be because of a UTI.
These pages explain what a UTI is, the different types of UTIs, their symptoms and treatments, and gives tips on how they may be prevented.
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Types Of Urinary Tract Infections
There are three different types of urinary tract infections. The type of infection depends on which part of the urinary tract is infected.
A urinary tract infection may involve different sections of the urinary tract including the following:
- Urethritis: An infection of the urethra, the hollow tube that drains urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.
- Cystitis: A bacterial infection in the bladder that often has moved up from the urethra.
- Pyelonephritis: An infection of the kidneys that is usually a result of an infection that has spread up the tract, or from an obstruction in the urinary tract. An obstruction in the urinary tract causes urine to back flow into the ureters and kidneys.
What Are The Symptoms Of A Urinary Tract Infection In Teens And Adults
The symptoms are different depending on where the infection is.
Symptoms of a UTI in the bladder include:
- Pain or burning when you urinate.
- An urge to urinate often, but usually passing only small amounts of urine.
- Pain in the lower belly.
- Urine that looks cloudy, is pink or red, or smells bad.
Symptoms of a UTI in the kidneys include:
- Pain in the flank. This is felt just below the rib cage and above the waist on one or both sides of the back.
- Fever and chills.
- Nausea and vomiting.
Some people have bacteria in their urinary tract without having any symptoms. This is called asymptomatic bacteriuria. It may lead to infections that cause symptoms, but in many cases it doesn’t. It usually goes away without treatment.
Several other conditions, such as vaginal infections or an irritable bladder, can cause symptoms like those of a UTI.
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